By Roland Hausser

The principal job of a future-oriented computational linguistics is the advance of cognitive machines which people can freely speak with of their respective typical language. in the end, this job will make sure the improvement of a sensible thought of language, an aim approach to verification, and quite a lot of functional purposes. common conversation calls for not just verbal processing, but in addition non-verbal belief and motion. for this reason the content material of this textbook is prepared as a conception of language for the development of speaking robots. the most subject is the mechanism of average language verbal exchange in either the speaker and the hearer.

In the 3rd version the writer has modernized the textual content, leaving the evaluate of conventional, theoretical, and computational linguistics, analytic philosophy of language, and mathematical complexity concept with their historic backgrounds intact. The layout of the empirical analyses of English and German syntax and semantics has been tailored to present perform; and Chaps. 22–24 were rewritten to concentration extra sharply at the development of a conversing robot.

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High precision, on the other hand, produces a return most of which is relevant for the user. Because of the concomitant low recall, however, the user has to accept the likelihood that a large percentage of relevant texts remain undiscovered. Measuring recall is difficult in large databases. It presupposes exact knowledge of all the texts or passages which happen to be relevant for any given query. To measure the recall for a given query, one would have to search the entire database manually in order to objectively determine the complete set of documents relevant to the user’s question and to compare it with the automatic query result.

The use of natural language is more challenging, however, and preferable in many situations. As a first step towards achieving unrestricted human-computer communication in natural language, let us consider the current state of linguistics. 9 This fact has been misunderstood to imply that a modeling of understanding in AI is impossible in principle. An example which is as prominent as it is mistaken is the ‘Chinese room argument’ in Searle (1992). 10 Even a standard computer may interpret certain structural aspects of language, however, such as the categories of the word forms.

Another approach to analyzing an online text for linguistic purposes is measuring the co-occurrence of word forms next to each other, based on bigrams and trigrams. 26 They operate with the abstract, digitally coded signs in the electronic medium, whereby word forms are no more than sequences of letters between spaces. Compared to nonelectronic methods – such as typewriting, typesetting, card indexing, searching by leafing and/or reading through documents, or building alphabetical word lists by hand – the electronic computation on the basis of letters is fast, precise, and easy to use.

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