By P. D. Vowles and D. W. Connell (Auth.)
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Additional resources for Experiments in Environmental Chemistry. A Laboratory Manual
1975), Chemistry in the Market Place, University Press, Canberra. The Food We Australian National Anon. (1974), Toxicological Evaluation of Certain Food Additives with a Review of General Principles and of Specifications, Technical Report Series, No 539, World Health Organisation, Geneva. 3 ERUCIC ACID CONTENT OF BREAD INTRODUCTION Erucic acid, or 13-docosenoic acid, is a mono-unsaturated fatty acid with a 22-member carbon chain. It is found in the oil of the rapeseed plant, Brassiaa napa, where it can make up to 50% of the total fatty acid content.
Erucic acid CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)1iCOOH Because of its viscosity, stability and non-stick properties, rapeseed oil has found wide use as a releasing agent in the baking industry. The oil is applied either to the container or to the dough surface to permit easy removal of the bread after baking. However, chemical studies have shown that this practice causes contamination of the bread with erucic acid. Most of this contamination is contained in the bottom, side and end surfaces in contact with the container.
2 FOOD ADDITIVES INTRODUCTION A variety of chemical substances are added to foods to improve their flavour, appearance, nutritive value and keeping qualities. These additives are classed according to their function and usage as preservatives, antioxidants, colours, flavours, sweeteners, emulsifiers, acidulants, aerators, humectants, free-running agents, vitamins and minerals. Two of these classes, preser vatives and colours, are under investigation in this activity and are discussed below. 1. Preservatives Benzoic acid and its sodiiam salts are among the most widely used antibacterial agents used in foods.