By Martin N. Sara, Lorne G. Everett, Symposium on Evaluation and Remediation of Low Permeability and Dual p
This special book offers a global standpoint on essentially the most complicated concerns in hydrology: box and laboratory dimension of low permeability and twin porosity fabrics. 11 peer-reviewed papers, written via a world staff of specialists, specialize in the advance of recommendations to guage hydraulic conductivity and remediation of good grained and twin porosity geologic fabrics. issues deal with: try out systems; Laboratory and box reviews; and coffee Permeability Environments and Remediation matters.
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Extra resources for Evaluation and Remediation of Low Permeability and Dual Porosity Environments
An effective stress of 20 kPa was selected for normalization because it corresponds approximately to a depth of 1 m. Data for fractured clays from Othman and Benson (1993), Sims et al. (1996), and Albrecht and Benson (2001) are also shown in Figure 4. All of these data are for clays from midwestem sites. 10 ' ' ' ' I ' ' ' ' I ' K ' ' 9  ':, D 9~,~ ' ' ~ I ' ' ' ' I ' ' ' ' Sims et al. 001 I i i 50 i i " Ko. 2 I 100 t i i t 2 ,r I i i i 150 i I 200 , = , , 250 Effective Stress, ~', (kPa) Figure 4 -- Relative hydraulic conductivity as a function of effective stress.
1 Figure 2 -- Hydraulic conductivity as a function of volume of soil tested. The trend in Figure 2 indicates that testing methods that permeate a larger volume of soil tend to yield hydraulic conductivities representative of the fracture network operative in the field. Hydraulic conductivities of the small specimens from sampling tubes are 200 times lower, on average, than the in situ hydraulic conductivity measured using the slug test. The only small specimen with hydraulic conductivity comparable to that obtained from the slug test is the specimen considered to be an 'outlier'.
The hydraulic properties for the basalt matrix and sedimentary interbeds at these sites have been determined from laboratory analysis of representative samples. Figure 8 shows the hydraulic conductivity characteristic curves for representative basalt matrix and sedimentary interbed material The basalt curve was obtained from hydrologic 50 LOW PERMEABILITY AND DUAL POROSITY ENVIRONMENTS characterization o f a near surface basalt block located near well 76-5 (Bishop 1991). The sedimentary interbed curve comes from a sample of the 10-m sedimentary interbed from a well adjacent to 76-5 (Magnuson and McElroy 1993).