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Future Challenges Further studies are needed to address a number of important issues: (1) The genetic basis of CAE must be further elucidated – for instance, through identification of candidate genes that convey a predisposition to the generation of SWDs. (2) The mechanisms that lead to the altered expression of otherwise normal ion channels remain to be 28 Absence Seizures _ Thalamocortical Synchronization and Absence Epilepsy identified. (3) Of special interest is the investigation of the role of intralaminar thalamic nuclei to the SWDs generation, as these nuclei are ideally positioned to spread activity within the thalamocortical system.

This horizontal thalamic slice provides a preparation that allows straightforward analyses of genetic mutations or pharmacologic interventions on intrathalamic rhythmicity. , thalamus and cortex) have been developed. The rodent thalamocortical slice was introduced as a suitable system for studying the physiology and pharmacology of the thalamocortical synapse and for exploring the synaptic circuitry of the somatosensory cortex. This thalamocortical slice preparation is a reproducible model that enables investigators to analyze thalamocortical synchronization and to understand the pathogenesis of absence epilepsy.

To estimate the degree of association between two signals and the corresponding time delay, the nonlinear correlation coefficient was calculated as a function of time shift between the two signals. Field potential recordings were also obtained from nonepileptic control rat thalamocortical slices maintained in vitro and superfused with medium containing 4-aminopyridine. Results Contribution of Cortical and Thalamic Networks to SW Discharges Studies of cats injected intramuscularly with penicillin have demonstrated that functional and anatomical integrity of thalamus and cortex is required for the generation of generalized SW discharges.

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