By Jacques Oosthuizen

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Other toxic metals including chromium (Cr) and vanadium (V) will be briefly mentioned in our discussion. , 1985; Lucinda, 1983) derivatization. , 2000). , 1998). In the derivatization step, two techniques have been used. , 1997) was used. Alternatively, derivatization technique based on alkylation reactions employ two reagents namely: the Grignard`s reagents (methylation or ethylation) and sodium tetraethylborate (Fatoki and Ngassoum, 2000; Cai and Bayona, 1995). , 1989) in water and sediment samples and the biota.

Org/hms/). , 1983). Numerous field observations also indicate a significant increase of HM concentrations in agricultural and forest soils as well as in marine and inland water sediments. org/hms/). , 1996). , 1982). , 1982). , 1998). For example, lead has been used in plumbing, and lead arsenate has been used to control insects in apple orchards. The Romans added lead to wine to improve its taste, and mercury was used as a salve to Speciation Methods for the Determination of Organotins (OTs) and Heavy Metals (HMs) in the Freshwater and Marine Environments 25 alleviate teething pain in infants (Nriagu, 1996).

Currently, anthropogenic inputs of metals exceed natural inputs. Excess metal levels in surface water may pose a health risk to humans and to the environment (Nriagu, 1996). Considering that heavy metals are natural constituents of the Earth's crust, they are present in varying concentrations in all ecosystems and human activities have drastically changedthe biogeochemical cycles and balance of some of these heavy metals. , 1983), etc. Relatively, volatile heavy metals and those that become attached to airborne particles can be widely dispersed on very large scales.

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