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199. 74 TN, pp. 151-2. 75 Cf. Bosworth, 'Coming of the Turks', p. 3; Frye and Sayili, 'Turks in the Middle East', pp. 194-207. 78 But here, again, it is by no means sure that we are dealing with Turks. More likely, they are the remains of earlier Shaka, Kushana and Hephthalite invasions, as can probably be said about the 2000 'Ghuzz Turk' slaves that the Arab governors of Khurasan stipulated as annual tribute from the Kabul Shah. These 'Khalaj Turks' from Ghazna were to be found in the Ghaznavid armies, and later also served the Ghurids, as well as the Slave Kings, finally producing a ruling dynasty of their own around 1290 AD, the Khal~jl dynasty of Delhi.

With their victory over the juanjuan, the Turks obtained control over the Central-Asian trade as well, including the silk trade between China and Byzantium. 50 Turkish relations with the Chinese on one side and with the Byzantines on the other had always been determined by their commercial interests. D. Smith, The Ethnic Origins of Nations (Oxford, 1986), p. 32, and adopted for the Turks by Golden, History of the Turkic Peoples, pp. 1-2. Such a community does not need to be able to refer to a common biological descent; in fact, they are always 'polyethnic' and political in character, with members who were born into it as well as others who joined it, a community of 'descent through tradition' and through recognition of the political leadership of a charismatic clan.

86. 45 46 THE COMING OF THE TURKS 63 'Iron gates' were to mark the borders of the Turkish empire, and swords passed as currency. Connected with the belief in the magical power of fire, the association with smithing clearly had 'shamanic' connotations, with the smith ranking immediately below the shaman himself. From the year 545 ADthe Turks began to rid themselves of juanjuan overlordship. A year later their leader was in a position to demand a juanjuan princess in marriage. Ten years later the Turks had defeated the juanjuan decisively.

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