By Benjamin Burr (auth.), Ronald L. Phillips, Indra K. Vasil (eds.)
The double helix structure of DNA was once elucidated in 1953. two decades later, in 1973, the invention of limit enzymes helped to create recombinant DNA mol ecules in vitro. the results of those robust and novel tools of molecular biol ogy, and their power within the genetic manipulation and development of microbes, crops and animals, grew to become more and more glaring, and resulted in the delivery of recent biotechnology. the 1st transgenic crops during which a bacterial gene have been stably built-in have been produced in 1983, and by means of 1993 transgenic crops have been produced in all significant crop species, together with the cereals and the legumes. those striking achievements have led to the construction of plants which are proof against powerful yet environmentally secure herbicides, or to viral pathogens and bug pests. In different situations genes were brought that hold up fruit ripening, or raise starch content material, or reason male sterility. each one of these manipulations are in line with the advent of a unmarried gene - more often than not of bacterial beginning - that regulates a massive monogenic trait, into the crop of selection. a number of the engineered plants are actually below box trials and are anticipated to be commercially produced in the following few years.
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Additional resources for DNA-Based Markers in Plants
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The primary advantage which MALDI-TOF MS offers is extremely rapid and accurate fragment size determination. Individual fragment separation times take milliseconds; however, for accurate determination ionization from multiple laser pulses are measured (Monforte and Becker 1997). As a result a single sample is processed in a few seconds or less. Current technical limits restrict accurate size determination to fragments 100 bases or less (Monforte and Becker 1997). Also, if the mass of individual fragments is varied, multiplexing of samples is possible (Haff and Smimov 1997).