By Paul M. Salmon, Neville A. Stanton, Daniel P. Jenkins

Having a correct realizing of what's occurring is a key commodity for groups operating inside army platforms. 'Situation understanding' (SA) is the time period that's used inside human elements circles to explain the extent of knowledge that operators have of the location that they're engaged in; it specializes in how operators strengthen and continue a enough figuring out of 'what is occurring' which will be successful in activity functionality. over the last 20 years, the build has turn into a primary subject in the components of procedure layout and review and has acquired massive consciousness from the human components examine neighborhood. regardless of this, there's nonetheless huge debate over how SA operates in advanced collaborative platforms and the way SA success and upkeep is better supported via approach, strategy and interface layout. This e-book makes a speciality of the lately constructed idea of dispensed scenario expertise, which takes a structures point of view at the proposal and strikes the focal point on scenario expertise out of the heads of person operators and directly to the final joint cognitive method which include human and technological brokers. scenario knowledge is seen as an emergent estate of collaborative platforms, whatever that is living within the interplay among components of the process and never within the heads of person operators operating in that method. the 1st a part of the ebook provides a finished evaluation and critique of current SA conception and dimension ways, following which a singular version for complicated collaborative platforms, the disbursed SA version, and a brand new modelling strategy, the propositional community procedure, are defined and validated. the following half specializes in real-world purposes of the version and modelling technique, and offers 4 case reports undertaken within the land battle, multinational conflict and effort distribution domain names. every one case research is defined when it comes to the area in query, the method hired, and the findings derived with regards to state of affairs wisdom concept. The 3rd and ultimate a part of the ebook then concentrates on theoretical improvement, and makes use of the tutorial literature and the findings from the case learn functions to validate and expand the disbursed SA version defined before everything of the publication. In last, the application of the dispensed SA version and modeling approach are defined and a chain of preliminary guidance for assisting allotted SA via process layout are articulated.

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The model has sound underpinning theory (Neisser, 1976) and is complete in that it refers to the continuous cycle of SA acquisition and maintenance, including both the process (the continuous sampling of the environment) and the product (the continually updated schema) of SA. Their description also caters for the dynamic nature of SA and more clearly describes an individual’s interaction with the world in order to achieve and maintain SA whereas Endsley’s model seems to place the individual as a passive information receiver.

Citation – depicts the number of citations derived from an analysis of peerreviewed journal articles (as of January 2008); 11. Main strengths – lists the main strengths of the model in relation to its use in system design and evaluation; and 12. Main weaknesses – lists the main weaknesses of the model in relation to its use in system design and evaluation. 1. 1 Theory Individual SA theory comparison table Domain of Origin Domain Applications Theoretical Underpinning Three Level Model (Endsley, 1995a) Aviation Military (Aviation, Infantry Ops), Air Traffic Control, Aviation (Flight & Maintenance ), Driving, Nuclear Power , Information Processing Theory Recognition Primed Decision Making Model (Klein, 1990 ) Perception of elements Comprehension of meaning Projection of future states Perception, comprehension and projection of SA elements Not distinct from information processing models Perceptual Cycle Model (Smith & Hancock, 1995) Air Traffic Control Air Traffic Control Perceptual Cycle Model (Niesser, 1976 ) Schema driven exploration & modification Externally directed consciousness Subset of Task Performance activated schema which Risk Space (Smith & Hancock, 1995) is externally focussed Orientational Stage Executive Stage Evaluative Stage Incoming Information Goals Conceptual Model of Situation Past Experience Environmental Features Motivation towards task goals Subjectively relevant Task Conditions Separate functional block within activity theory model N/A Integration of knowledge derived from situation assessments Accessible and Activated Knowledge Conscious and available mental contents Activated knowledge in working memory derived from situation assessment Embedded Tasks Theory of Activity Model (Bedny & Meister, 1999) N/A N/A Theory of Activity Model (Bedny & Meister, 1999 ) Working Memory Mental Models Situation Assessment Awareness Process Composition Novelty Measure SAGAT (Endsley, 1995 b) SA Requirements Analysis (Endsley, 1993) Sarter & Woods (1991) Aviation Aviation Adams, Tenney & Pew (1995 ) Aviation Aviation Perceptual Cycle Model Schema driven exploration (Niesser, 1976 ) Working Memory Theory & modification (Sanford & Garrod , 1981) Active Schema Explicit and Implicit focus in Working Memory Activated Schema Computational Modelling Aviation 1) information availability ; Interactive Cognitive Sub2) perception of information ; systems (Bernard & May, 3) attention; and 2000 ) 4) Higher level cognitive Rushby (1999 ) processing Perceptual level awareness Semantically Processed level of awareness Differentiation between perception and semantic level SA Undesirable Interventions Man-Machine Interactions Verbal Protocol Analysis Participant DeBrief Demand, Supply of attentional resources, Understanding 10 Dimensions - familiarity, focusing, information quantity , instability, concentration , complexity, variability , arousal , information quality and spare capacity.

Situation Awareness in Collaborative Systems Teams The use of teams has increased significantly over the past three decades (Savoie, cited in Salas, 2004). , 1993; cited in Salas and Cannon-Bowers, 2004). , 2003), the construct of team SA is currently receiving increased attention from the HF community. A team is characterised as consisting of two or more people, dealing with multiple information sources and working to accomplish a shared or common goal of some sort. Salas et al. (1995, p. 127) define a team as ‘a distinguishable set of two or more people who interact dynamically, interdependently and adaptively toward a common What Really Is Going On?

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