By Anne David

Spoken through as many as 50 million humans in Afghanistan and Pakistan, Pashto includes various broadly diverging kinds. the heart for complicated learn of Language Pashto Grammar offers an outline of the language that's supported through examples awarded in local orthography, Roman transcription, morpheme-by-morpheme glossing, and translation. it really is designed as a first-rate reference paintings for either linguists and scholars of Pashto.

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Additional resources for Descriptive Grammar of Pashto and its Dialects

Example text

The letter wāw-hamza appears word-medially in Perso-Arabic borrowings such as /swāl, suwāl/ ‘question’. When appearing word-finally, the letter he may represent a vowel such as /a/ or /ə/. The letter ye is also commonly used when referring to the letter ye in general, as in a section of a dictionary. It thus can be used to encompass . mārufa ye In this usage, it would be called simply ye. The name mārufa ye for the letter means ‘known ye’, reflecting the fact that its sound, /i/, was known in Arabic.

In order to compare these treatments to each other, we provide example words representing each class of sounds. For these, we have provided Pashto script reflecting the General Pashto pronunciation; however, to our knowledge, there exists no systematic representation of M pronunciation using Pashto script. There does not seem to be a reliable contrast in M between /o/ and /u/. Lorimer and Hallberg distinguish between /a/ and /ā/, whereas Septfonds does not. Septfonds distinguishes between /əy/ and /ay/, whereas Lorimer does not.

10. Note that in much text encountered on the internet and elsewhere, or may be used in place of the other forms, without affecting the expected pronunciation. 9: Pashto affricate letters based on ‫ح‬ Letter Sound Function/comments ‫ی‬ ay word-finally ā word-finally in some words derived from Arabic, such as hatā ‘even’. This is known as alif maqsura. 11. Sources differ on some of the names for Pashto letters, or give more than one. These differences are due in part to regional variation in how the letters are pronounced and in part to variation in how the Pashto has been Romanized.

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