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Extra info for Deepak Kumar Tala Verilog Tutorial (2003)(en)(123s)

Example text

They can be used for modeling combinational logic. They are outside the procedural blocks (always and initial blocks). The continuous assign overrides and procedural assignments. The left-hand side of a continuous assignment must be net data type. syntax : assign (strength, strength) # delay net = expression; Example: 1-bit Adder module adder (a,b,sum,carry); input a, b; output sum, carry; assign #5 {carry,sum} = a+b; endmodule Example: Tri-State Buffer module tri_buf(a,b,enable); input a, enable; output b; assign b = (enable) ?

Syntax: keyword unique_name (inout1, inout2, control); tranif0 my_gate1 (net5, net8, cnt); rtranif1 my_gate2 (net5, net12, cnt); Transmission gates tran and rtran are permanently on and do not have a control line. Tran can be used to interface two wires with separate drives, and rtran can be used to weaken signals. Resistive devices reduce the signal strength which appears on the output by one level. All the switches only pass signals from source to drain, incorrect wiring of the devices will result in high impedance outputs.

B ? ? == operators o bits with x and z are included in the comparison and must match for the result to be true o the result is always 0 or 1 Logical Operators ! && || logic negation logical and logical or ? ? Expressions connected by && and || are evaluated from left to right Evaluation stops as soon as the result is known The result is a scalar value: o 0 if the relation is false o 1 if the relation is true o x if any of the operands has unknown x bits Bit-wise Operators ~ & | ^ ^~ or ~^ ?

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