By Gehman H. M.

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Extra resources for Concerning Certain Types of Non-Cut Points, with an Application to Continuous Curves

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7, or about nine times higher than today. This illustrates the importance of including variations in solar radiation in carbon cycle modeling over long geologic times. 6. Recently it has been suggested that the passage of the solar system through arms of the Milky Way galaxy results in increased fluxes of cosmic rays toward the earth because of a greater density of supernovas in the spiral arms (Shaviv, 2002). Reactions of atmospheric gases with cosmic rays produce ions that can serve as cloud condensation nuclei.

2. Activation energies for silicate rock and mineral dissolution. , 2001 aBased on silica dissolution. on Na dissolution. cMediated by lichens. bBased where Z is equal to ∆E/RTTo (symbolized as ACT in Berner and Kothavala, 2001). 11) is a form that is especially useful in carbon cycle modeling. , 2001) have shown that for a given rock type one can discern a temperature effect on weathering rate providing that variations in relief and other factors are limited. 2. In general there is agreement between field studies and experimental studies indicating that the rate-limiting step in the dissolution of the primary minerals is the same in the field as in the lab.

6) Assuming as a maximum that 30% of Ca is derived from basalt, and using the total formation rate of Chemical Weathering of Silicates 39 CaCO3 in submarine basalts given by Alt and Teagle, insertion of this degree of submarine weathering in the GEOCARB model (Berner and Kothavala, 2001) results in a very minor change in calculated CO2 levels. During the distant geologic past, submarine basalt weathering may have been more important than at present. In the present oceans more carbonate is deposited in deep sea sediments than in submarine basalts, and the carbonates later join in contributing to CO2 degassing during subduction, but with basaltic carbonate being a lesser contributor.

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