By Richard Jackson Harris (Eds.)

This choice of 33 papers represents the most up-tp-date considering andresearch at the learn of cognitive processing in bilingual participants. Thecontributors contain recognized figures within the box and promising newscholars, representing 4 continents and paintings in dozens of languages.Instead of the social, political, or academic implications ofbilingualism, the point of interest is on how bilingual humans (mostly adults) thinkand approach language.

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Similar experiments using other languages produced the same general results and conclusions. These include Dalrymple-Alford (1968), Dyer (1971), Albert and Obler (1978), and Fang, Tzeng and Alva (1981). Hamers and Lambert (1972) reported an auditory Stroop test which found interference across languages. Ehri and Ryan (1980) used a picture-word version of the Stroop task, with results again that the greatest amount of interference occurred in the within-languagecondition. They concluded that this supported the shared model of bilingual memory.

Macnamara, Krauthammer and Bolgar (1968) found evidence for a switch between languages when subjects made verbal responses and concluded a switch does mediate between language-specific verbal production systems. Macnamara and Kushnir (197 1) reported that as the number of language switches increased in the sentences, the time necessary for subjects to make true-false judgements about the sentences also increased. They concluded that the separation between the languages included a separation in the representations of the meanings of the words.

On the bilingual category lists, subjects made a significant number of wrong-language errors. The authors interpreted these results as supporting the language-tagging hypothesis. They took the wrong-language errors, which occurred only when subjects could categorize words across languages, as evidence that subjects were decoding words semantically, and the language tags were getting lost in the process. These History of Bilingualism Research in Cognitive Psychology 23 experiments by Lambert were followed by an experiment of Dalrymple-Alford and Aamiry (1969) who, using three languages and three categories, found the same results.

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