By Stefan Brönnimann, Jürg Luterbacher, Tracy Ewen, Henry F. Diaz, Richard S. Stolarski, Urs Neu

This quantity presents an up to the moment assessment of weather variability through the twentieth century within the context of common and anthropogenic variability. It compiles a couple of contributions to a workshop held in Gwatt, Switzerland, in July 2006 facing diverse points of weather switch, variability, and extremes in past times a hundred years. the person contributions conceal a extensive diversity of issues. the amount fills a niche during this interesting box of research.

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5 top) could be related to this mechanism. A combination of direct thermal effects (White et al. 1997; Meehl et al. 2002) and indirect dynamical effects via the stratosphere could also be responsible for solar effects on climate (see Calisesi et al. 2007 for a recent compilation of papers on Sun–climate links). Rozanov et al. (this volume) give an overview of the effects via the stratosphere (see also Shindell et al. 1999; Kodera and Kuroda 2002). The variability of solar radiation over an 11-year sunspot cycle is much larger in the UV wavelength range than total solar irradiance.

Acad. Sci. USA, 101, 4136–4141. McPhaden, M. , S. E. Zebiak, and M. H. Glantz, 2006: ENSO as an intergrating concept in Earth science. Science, 314, 1740–1745. Mears, C. A. and F. J. Wentz, 2005: The effect of diurnal correction on satellite-derived lower tropospheric temperature. Science, 309, 1548–1551. Meehl, C. , W. M. Washington, T. M. L. Wigley, J. M. Arblaster, and A. Dai, 2002: Solar and greenhouse gas forcing and climate response in the twentieth century. J. Climate, 16, 426–444. Moberg, A.

At “Eismitte” ground level was already 3,000 m high, thus allowing considerable heights with simple equipment, if weather conditions were favourable enough. The best results were received at East Station with 155 (mostly) kite ascents up to 4,700 m, while a lesser number of balloon ascents reached only to 3,700 m (see p. 144 in Kopp 1935). In the end, the data was insufficient to provide evidence for a stationary glacial anticyclone. In addition, meteorological ground level data were taken at each station, describing the differences in local climate during all seasons.

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