By Roberto Rinaldi, Laurie Peter, Ferdi Schüth, Heinz Frei, Tim S. Zhao, Dmitry Murzin, Bert Sels, Atsushi Fukuoka, Jose L.G Fierro, Regina Palkovits, Jan-Dierk Grunwaldt, Jurgen Klankermayer, Eduardo Falabella Sousa-Aguiar, An Philippaerts, Walter Leitner,

The effective conversion of biomass to value-added items has turn into a tremendous examine zone within the pursuit of choices to petroleum-based feedstocks; hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis are vital instruments to attaining this goal. This publication offers entire insurance of the various catalysts for those reactions, concentrating on the effective conversion of bio-based molecules and biopolymers.

The editor, Roberto Rinaldi, is an stated chief within the box of biomass conversion, and has introduced jointly specialists from around the globe to check all features of the method, together with the solvents, catalysts and feedstocks utilized in smooth biorefineries. attention can also be given to the basics of operating a plant, comparable to gear and protection issues.

As the biorefinery expands to satisfy the newest discoveries in biomass conversion, this booklet offers a radical grounding within the topic and may be a vital connection with researchers on the leading edge of researching new items, businesses wishing to scale-up biomass conversion, and postgraduate scholars of sustainable chemistry and chemical engineering.

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37 4. The direct conversion of vegetable oils or animal fats into linear or branched alkanes is the core technology for the production of the second generation of biodiesel,38–40 as presented in more detail in Chapters 8 and 9. 5. Finally, hydrogenated vegetable oils and fats are extremely important for the food and chemical industries. The selectivity of the catalytic process determines the chemical and physical properties of the hydrogenated products, defining the application potential and therefore the product value, as discussed indepth in Chapter 10.

ZnCl2 and H3BO3) was found to be ineffective for the hydrogenolysis of cellulose to EG. g. tungsten carbide (W2C), tungsten oxide (WO3) and heteropolyacid (H3PW12O40), were used in combination with Ru/AC. It is clear that tungsten and its compounds are unique for the catalytic hydrogenolysis of cellulose to EG. For the aforementioned tungstencontaining compounds, dissolved HxWO3 species was always formed under hydrothermal conditions. 102 Subjecting glucose to the W-based catalytic system results in EG as the major product, while the conversion of fructose leads to 1,2-PG under the same reaction conditions.

L. Panwar, Renew. Sustain. , 2013, 25, 404. 18. N. Dahmen and E. Dinjus, Chem. Ing. , 2010, 82, 1147. 19. S. Sarkar and A. Kumar, Energy, 2010, 35, 582. 20 Chapter 1 ¨nther and J. Garche, NOW-Studie (Kurzfassung) 20. T. Smolinka, M. Gu ‘‘Stand und Entwicklungspotenzial der Wasserelektrolyse zur Herstellung von Wasserstoff aus regenerativen Energien’’, Freiburg 2011. 21. D. ) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim 2010. 22. K. Zeng and D. Zhang, Prog. , 2010, 36, 307. ¨ussinger, R. Lohmu ¨ller and A.

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