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Additional resources for Catalysis for Sustainable Energy Production
Manganese oxides have been extensively studied and it was shown that the activity of these catalysts depends on the kind of oxides. The most active were the oxides a-MnO2, g-MnO2, Mn2O3 and MnOOH [108, 110, 111]. The reaction mechanism on these catalysts involves the formation of the HO2À intermediate via the transfer of two electrons followed by a dismutation reaction of this species into OHÀ and O2. The kinetics of the dismutation reaction is so fast, particularly on the MnOOH catalyst, that apparently four electrons are exchanged during the ORR [109, 113].
5 (20 wt%)/C. Laboratory-made cathode Pt (40 wt%)/C and anode catalysts prepared according to the B€ onnemann method. All electrodes were loaded with 2 mg cmÀ2 of metal. Anionic membrane, Morgane ADP from Solvay. 1 M EG, at various potentials (each 100 mV) from 130 to 1030 mV/RHE (1) and chromatograms of the anodic outlet of a SAMFC working with a Pt/C anode without fuel recirculation (2). 1/C anode without fuel recirculation (2). Electrocatalysts were prepared according to the water-in-oil microemulsion method.
75 V, which indicates that the modiﬁed catalysts are less poisoned by adsorbed species coming from ethanol chemisorption than the Pt/C catalyst. For Pt–Sn (80 : 20), current densities up to 150 mA cmÀ2 are reached at 110 C, giving a maximum power density greater than 25 mW cmÀ2, which means an electrical performances four times higher than those obtained with Pt/C. The increase in the electrical performance indicates that the bimetallic catalyst is more active for ethanol electro-oxidation than the Pt/C catalyst.