By Ben Albahari, Joseph Albahari
When you are programming C# 4.0 and want a bit support, this tightly targeted and useful booklet tells you precisely what you must comprehend -- with out lengthy introductions or bloated examples. it really is perfect as a succinct quickly reference or as a advisor to get you swiftly up to the mark if you happen to already comprehend Java, C++, or an previous model of C#.
Written by way of the authors of the acclaimed C# 4.0 in a Nutshell (O’Reilly), this ebook covers the whole C# 4.0 language -- with no skimping at the info -- together with:
- Features new to C# 4.0, akin to dynamic binding, non-compulsory and named parameters, and sort parameter variance
- All of C#'s basics
- Advanced themes, together with operator overloading, customized conversions, style constraints, covariance and contravariance, lambda expressions and closures, iterators, nullable kinds, and operator lifting
- LINQ, beginning with sequences, lazy execution, and traditional question operators; completing with a whole connection with question expressions
- Unsafe code and guidelines, customized attributes, preprocessor directives, and XML documentation
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Extra info for C# 4.0 Pocket Reference: Instant Help for C# 4.0 Programmers
Dividing by the literal 0 generates a compile-time error. Integral overflow At runtime, arithmetic operations on integral types can overflow. By default, this happens silently—no exception is thrown. While the C# specification is agnostic as to the result of an overflow, the CLR always causes wraparound behavior. 0 Pocket Reference The checked and unchecked operators The checked operator tells the runtime to generate an Over flowException rather than failing silently when an integral expression or statement exceeds the arithmetic limits of that type.
For example, the expression 8/4/2 is evaluated as (8/4)/2 due to left associativity. Of course, you can insert your own parentheses to change evaluation order. 0 Pocket Reference Right-associative operators The assignment operators, lambda, null coalescing and conditional operator are right-associative; in other words, they are evaluated from right to left. Right associativity allows multiple assignments such as x=y=3 to compile: it works by first assigning 3 to y, and then assigning the result of that expression (3) to x.
Point p = null; // Compile-time error int x = null; // Compile-time error NOTE C# has a special construct, called nullable types, for representing value-type nulls (see the section “Nullable Types” on page 130). Predefined Type Taxonomy The predefined types in C# are: Value types • Numeric — Signed integer (sbyte, short, int, long) — Unsigned integer (byte, ushort, uint, ulong) — Real number (float, double, decimal) • Logical (bool) • Character (char) Reference types • String (string) • Object (object) Predefined types in C# alias Framework types in the System namespace.