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Additional resources for Building Dialogue POMDPs from Expert Dialogues: An end-to-end approach
The dialog agent, has been formulated in the MDP framework so that the dialog MDP agent learns the dialog policy (Pieraccini et al. 1997; Levin and Pieraccini 1997). In this context, the MDP policy learning can be done either via model-free RL, or modelbased RL. The model-free RL, in short RL, introduced in Sect. 3, can be done using techniques such as Q-learning. The model-based dialog policy learning is basically solving the dialog MDP/POMDP model using algorithms such as value iteration, introduced in Sect.
This is called t-step planning. Notice that the number of created beliefs increases exponentially with respect to the planning time t. This problem is called curse of history in POMDPs (Kaelbling et al. 1998; Pineau 2004). Planning is performed in POMDPs as a breadth first search in trees for a finite t, and consequently finite t-step conditional plans. A t-step conditional plan describes a policy with a horizon of t-step further (Williams 2006). It can be represented as a tree that includes a specified root action at .
S/ a2A s0 2S The process of policy evaluation and policy improvement continues until t D tC1 . , t D . The significant drawback of the policy iteration algorithms is that for each improved policy t , a complete policy evaluation is done (Lines 7 and 8). Generally, value iteration algorithm is used to handle this drawback. We study value iteration algorithms for both MDPs and POMDPs in the following sections. 2 Value Iteration for MDPs Value iteration methods overlap the evaluation and improvement steps introduced in the previous section.