By Julie L. Lockwood, Michael L. McKinney

Biological homogenization is the dominant technique shaping the longer term worldwide biosphere. As international transportation turns into speedier and extra widespread, it's inevitable that biotic intermixing increases. distinct neighborhood biotas becomes extinct basically to get replaced via already frequent biotas that could tolerate human actions. This technique is affecting all features of our international: language, economies, and ecosystems alike. the last word final result is the lack of forte and the expansion of uniformity. during this manner, quick nutrients eating places exist in Moscow and Java Sparrows breed on Hawaii.
organic homogenization qualifies as an international environmental disaster. The Earth hasn't ever witnessed this type of vast and whole reorganization of species distributions.

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The open-space site was visited only six times in 1992 because it burned on 10 July. In Ohio, points were surveyed a total of eight times in June and July 1996, and four times in June 1997. Daily surveys began at dawn and continued until all 16 points at a site were covered, approximately two hours. Each point was visited for five minutes. This method results in an estimate of absolute density (birds ha- 1) of all species within each site (For details on method, see Blair 1996). 3 Butterfly and Skipper Survey Method Butterflies (Papilionoidea) and skippers (Hesperioidea) (collectively referred to as "butterflies") were sampled along walking transects.

1994). In California, I found that urbanization has predictable effects not only on the distribution and abundance of individual species of birds and butterflies, but also on community measures such as species richness, abundance, and Shannon diversity (Blair 1996, Blair and Launer 1997, Blair 1999). In this study, I compared urban gradients in the coastal chaparral forest shrub ecoregion of California and the eastern broadleaf forest ecoregion of Ohio to test whether (1) increasing urbanization leads to increasingly homogeneous bird communities, (2) increasing urbanization leads to increasingly homogeneous butterfly communities, and (3) urbanization has the same homogenizing effects on these two taxa which have very different life histories.

What then is the role of geographic range in invasions, natural or otherwise? The above discussion shows how surprisingly little quantitative data exist on this, both for anthropogenic and Pleistocene cases. > ~ extraprovincial species 20 18 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 o 90 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Lati t udinal range (in degrees) Oregonian & Arct ic species Nort hem extraprovincial species 30 25 20 15 10 20 40 60 80 100 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 BO 90 Lati t udinal range (in degrees) Figure 2. Comparisons of frequency distributions of present-day latitudinal ranges of eastern Pacific marine molluscan species.

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