By Hyoe Hatakeyama, Tatsuko Hatakeyama (auth.), Akihiro Abe, Karel Dusek, Shiro Kobayashi (eds.)

Table of Contents Lignin constitution, homes, and functions Hyoe Hatakeyama and Tatsuko Hatakeyama Tensile Mechanics of α-Helical Coil Springs Atsushi Ikai Bioactive Polymer/Hydroxyapatite (Nano)composites for Bone Tissue Regeneration Kinga Pielichowska and Stanislaw Blazewicz

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From the above results, it is confirmed that LS can be reacted with CL in a similar way to other types of lignin, such as KL and alcoholysis lignin. It is thought that process ability of lignins will be attained by introduction of hydrophobic side chains such as PCL to lignin. Copolymers obtained are expected to have biocompatibility since both lignin and PCL are biocompatible. 3 Biocomposites Biocompatibility of composites has recently attracted considerable interest, since composites are widely used in various fields, such as construction.

Hatakeyama Fig. 12 Relationships between correlation time (τc ) at 20 and −20◦ C and water content of water restrained by LS Fig. 7 1000 T–1 / K–1 absolute temperature is almost the same as shown in Fig. Thus, Ea of relaxation process was calculated. The calculated value was 12 kJ mol−1 [61]. 1 Chemical Decomposition Chemical degradation of lignin is a field that has been well researched. Although a number of methods have been proposed, several methods are generally known. The following methods can be considered as major chemical degradation methods of lignin: acidolysis (hydrolysis), nitrobenzene oxidation, permanganate oxidation, hydrogenolysis, ozonization, and thermolysis.

In contrast, the amount of KL content scarcely affects the Tg , values in the above PU derivatives. 33 150 150 100 100 50 0 2 20 3 n 4 40 t/ n nte KL Tg / °C Tg / °C Lignin Structure, Properties, and Applications 50 % Co 310 310 290 290 270 Td / °C Td / °C Fig. 16 Three-dimensional figure between Tg , KL content (%) and number of repeating unit of oxyethylene chain (n) 270 2 0 3 20 n 4 40 nt / onte KL C % Fig. 17 Relationships between Td1 , n and KL content of PU foams derived from KL Decomposition temperature→Td of the above KL foams was investigated by TG.

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