By Vladimir Strezov, Tim J. Evans

This article is a completely up to date therapy of the entire to be had applied sciences for biomass conversion. each one bankruptcy seems on the viability and implementation of every know-how with examples of current apparatus and crops. additionally, the textual content addresses the economics of biomass processing. The booklet may be used as a supplementary textual content for senior undergraduate classes on biomass processing.

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Corn Zea mays L. Date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. Grape Vitis vinifera L. Job’s tears Coix lacryma jobi L. Oat Avena sativa L. 9 75 Energy Crops (Perennial Grasses) Alfalfa Medicago sativa L. Bahia grass Paspalum notatum Barnyard grass Echinochloa crusgalli Bermuda grass Cynodon dactylon Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. 8 Botanical Name Carbohydrate Crops (Soft Fruits) Peach palm Bactris gasipaes Potato Solanum tuberosum L. Rye Secale cereale L. Sorghum Sorghum bicolor Sugar beet Beta vulgaris L.

10). The heating value of the biomass is dependent on the mineral matter present. Generally, the main constituents of the biomass minerals are Si, Ca, K, Na and Mg, with smaller amounts of S, P, Fe, Mn and Al (Raveendran et al. 1995). The alkali metals of biomass (Na, K, Mg, P and Ca) are important for thermochemical processing because they react with the silica to produce a sticky liquid phase that leads to blocked airways in furnaces and boilers (McKendry 2002). Silica in the biomass also traps the carbon particles, making the carbon unavailable for conversion (Raveendran et al.

Pyrolysis processes convert biomass materials to gaseous and liquid products and create carbon-rich charcoal residue. Pyrolysis also occurs as an intermediate step in combustion and gasification. Liquefaction is a thermal process similar to pyrolysis in which biomass materials are heated under hydrogen or methane atmosphere aiming to convert the lignocellulosic materials to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. The biochemical processes involve anaerobic digestion, in which biomass materials are converted through anaerobic bacterial action in the absence of air.

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