By Victor Kaptelinin, Mary Czerwinski

The computer's metaphorical laptop, with its onscreen home windows and hierarchy of folders, is the single electronic paintings atmosphere such a lot clients and architects have ever identified. but empirical reports convey that the conventional computing device layout doesn't supply adequate help for state-of-the-art real-life projects related to collaboration, multitasking, a number of roles, and numerous applied sciences. In past the computer Metaphor, best researchers and builders reflect on layout techniques for a post-desktop future.The individuals learn the constraints of the computer surroundings - together with the integrated clash among entry and reveal, the problems in dealing with a number of projects concurrently, and the necessity to coordinate the a number of applied sciences and knowledge items (laptops, PDAs, documents, URLs, e-mail) that the majority humans use day-by-day - and suggest novel layout recommendations that paintings towards a extra built-in electronic paintings atmosphere. They describe platforms that facilitate entry to details, together with Lifestreams, Haystack, job Gallery, GroupBar, and Scalable textile, and so they argue that the association of labor environments may still mirror the social context of labor. they think about the suggestion of task as a conceptual software for designing built-in structures, and element to the Kimura and Activity-Based Computing platforms as examples.Beyond the computer Metaphor is the 1st systematic assessment of cutting-edge study on built-in electronic paintings environments. It offers a glimpse of what the following iteration of data applied sciences for daily use may possibly appear like - and it's going to encourage layout options for clients' real-world wishes.

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In addition to the QUIS surveys, we also instrumented Lifestreams in order to capture a quantitative measure of the effectiveness of the system. Overall, data suggested that substreams were an effective and efficient mechanism for locating information (although certain improvements could have been made with better indexing technology). You’ll find these issues and others, such as the variety of user styles we saw when observing users of the system, detailed in the dissertation. In sum, Lifestreams appeared to elicit a highly positive subjective reaction from those who used the system, but also from those who just envisioned using it.

Lifestreams (the document-organization model) was orthogonal to the document-creation and document-viewing applications. Incoming documents slid in from the left side via animation, with a “swoosh” sound. Newly created documents popped down from on top and pushed the stream backward by one document into the past. To view (or edit) a document, the user simply clicked on its representation. , transfer—copy to another stream), Find, Squish (meaning summarize), and a few useful secondary operations as buttons and menus.

The PDA version was implemented on the Apple Newton; it provided rudimentary stream access, given the Newton’s lack of internal memory and low bandwidth. The later commercial versions of Lifestreams were focused mostly on web browsers, but included a fair amount of support for cell phones and more modern PDAs. Describing the interfaces and their functionality in detail is far beyond the scope of this chapter. But we’ll examine the X Windows interface and touch briefly on others. The X Windows interface may appear crude next to today’s GUIs, but its functionality remains unmatched—even by the commercial Lifestreams implementations!

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