By David M. Freidenreich

The medieval Islamic global comprised a large choice of religions. whereas participants and groups during this global pointed out themselves with specific faiths, barriers among those teams have been imprecise and on occasion nonexistent. instead of easily borrowing or lending customs, items, and notions to each other, the peoples of the Mediterranean zone interacted inside of a typical tradition. Beyond non secular Borders provides subtle and infrequently innovative stories of the methods Jewish, Christian, and Muslim thinkers drew principles and concept from outdoor the boundaries in their personal spiritual communities.

Each essay during this assortment covers a key element of interreligious relationships in Mediterranean lands in the course of the first six centuries of Islam. those reviews specialise in the cultural context of alternate, the impression of trade, and the standards motivating trade among adherents of alternative religions. Essays handle the impression of the shared Arabic language at the move of data, re-evaluate the limitations imposed via Muslim rulers on Christian and Jewish topics, and exhibit the necessity to contemplate either Jewish and Muslim works within the research of Andalusian philosophy. Case reviews at the effect of trade research particular literary, non secular, and philosophical suggestions that crossed spiritual borders. In every one case, parts local to at least one spiritual crew and initially overseas to a different grew to become absolutely at domestic in either. the quantity concludes by way of contemplating why definite principles crossed non secular strains whereas others didn't, and the way particular figures all in favour of such techniques understood their very own roles within the move of ideas.

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The tenth-century Muslim thinker Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allah Ibn Masarra (d. 930) provides an apt illustration of the thick fog that covers these beginnings. Much speculation has been published concerning his philosophical tendency. Ibn Masarra has been described as a Muʿtazilī theologian, a mystic, a Neoplatonist follower of the Bāṭiniyya, a follower of the so-called Pseudo-­ Empedocles, and a combination of all of these. Most of these suggestions, however, are not based on an examination of his extant writings and even less on an appraisal of his probable intellectual environment.

I would like to adduce here another case that may be an instructive indication of the extent of Arabization among Jews (or at least one Jewish group) in the ninth century. As I have shown elsewhere,99 Ananite Arabic literature had probably reached a very advanced stage by the middle of the ninth century. This may be concluded from the fact that it is certain that the Aramaic version of Anan’s Code was not available in Babylonia (Iraq) at that time and from the many quotations by al-Qirqisānī (around 930) from Ananite works in Arabic, which must have come into existence as a substitute for the original text of the most basic source of Ananite legislation.

During this period, Muslim authorities promulgated a crystallized set of rules that, in contrast to the above opinions, was uniformly enforced by various caliphs and rulers. The Code of Restrictions Regarding Non-Muslims It is not within the scope of this essay to trace the formation of the codes regarding non-Muslims. I will present here only a succinct summary of the conclusions of a broader discussion wherein I present evidence regarding the process of codification of shurūṭ ʿUmar. Shurūṭ ʿUmar, usually translated as “The Pact of ʿUmar,” is the document regarding the position of non-Muslims under Muslim rule.

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