By Gary M. Feinman

The most demanding difficulties dealing with modern archaeology is that of explaining the operation and variety of historical states. This quantity addresses the ways that old states have been dependent and operated, an figuring out of that is key to our skill to interpret a states upward push or fall.

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On the basis of available data, it appears that the Early Horizon was a period of competition among powerful chiefdoms, such as those centered at Chavin de Huantar (Burger 1992) and Cerro Sechin (Samaniego, Vergara, and Bischof 1985). During the Early Intermediate period the first Andean state, called Moche or Mochica, emerged on the north coast (Hastings and Moseley 1975; Moseley 1983: 222; Shimada 1994; Wilson 1988:332-42). Our first hint of a statelike, four-tiered settlement hierarchy comes from David Wilson's survey of the Casma Valley (Wilson 1995).

It would be dangerous to deny that some underlying trends may have been at work within the Mesopotamian urban society independently of, or indeed in spite of, the potent extraneous influences imposed by dynastic ambitions and disasters, but they are hard to detect behind these much more dramatic oscillations. The similarities between one period of prosperity and another, one "Dark Age" or Zwischenzeit and another, seem more than their differences. (postgate 1992: 22-23) PERU 2nd stage [ Three possible phases of consolidation within the second stage of expansion.

Opinions differ on whether this building program reflects a peaceful transition from 66 I JOYCE MARCUS Double Bird or the response to a disruption by Caracol. " Jones, on the other hand, believes that Animal Skull was an intruder or, at the least, a person not in direct line to rule. " The next big construction program at Tikal, around AD 600, coincides with Burial 195 (possibly the tomb of Animal Skull himself). We then see a succession of rulers to which letters of the alphabet have been assigned (Rulers A, B, and C).

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