By Chelston W. D Brathwaite
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Additional info for An Introduction to the Diagnosis of Plant Disease
2. By what processes are all four types of organic molecules split into their subunits, and by what process can these subunits be joined together? 3. How do energy-storage polysaccharides and structural polysaccharides differ from one another? What are some examples of each? 4. What is an enzyme, and why are enzymes important to cells? 5. How is ATP different from ADP, and why is ATP important to cells? 6. What is the difference between primary and secondary metabolites? 7. What are the main types of secondary metabolites, and what are some examples of each?
It is now possible, for example, to clean up polluted environments through phytoremediation (Figure 1–13), to stimulate the growth of plants, to deter their pests, to control weeds in crops, and to form hybrids between plants with more precision than ever before. The potential for exciting progress in plant biology grows with every passing year, as additional discoveries are made and new applications are developed. The methods of genetic engineering, discussed in Chapter 10, make it possible to accomplish the astonishing feat of transferring genes from a virus, a bacterium, an animal, or a particular plant into an entirely different species of plant in order to produce specific desirable characteristics in the recipient plant.
In their structure, however, proteins all follow the same simple blueprint: they are all polymers of nitrogen-containing molecules known as amino acids, arranged in a linear sequence. Twenty different kinds of amino acids are used by living organisms to form proteins. ) Protein molecules are large and complex, often containing several hundred or more amino acid monomers. Thus, the possible number of different amino acid sequences, and therefore the possible variety of protein molecules, is enormous—about as enormous as the number of different sentences that can be written with our own 26-letter alphabet.