By William N. Venables, David M. Smith

This handbook presents an creation to "R", a software program package deal for statistical computing and photographs. R is unfastened software program, allotted below the GNU normal Public License. it may be used with GNU/Linux, Unix and Microsoft home windows.

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Frame", "density", "factor", and more. ) UseMethod("coef") The presence of UseMethod indicates this is a generic function. nls* Non-visible functions are asterisked In this example there are six methods, none of which can be seen by typing its name. na(z)] } The reader is referred to the R Language Definition for a more complete discussion of this mechanism. Chapter 11: Statistical models in R 50 11 Statistical models in R This section presumes the reader has some familiarity with statistical methodology, in particular with regression analysis and the analysis of variance.

If some of the arguments to cbind() are vectors they may be shorter than the column size of any matrices present, in which case they are cyclically extended to match the matrix column size (or the length of the longest vector if no matrices are given). The function rbind() does the corresponding operation for rows. In this case any vector argument, possibly cyclically extended, are of course taken as row vectors. Suppose X1 and X2 have the same number of rows. To combine these by columns into a matrix X, together with an initial column of 1s we can use > X <- cbind(1, X1, X2) The result of rbind() or cbind() always has matrix status.

Frame=df) are all equivalent. In many cases arguments can be given commonly appropriate default values, in which case they may be omitted altogether from the call when the defaults are appropriate. frame, graph=TRUE, limit=20) { ... } it could be called as > ans <- fun1(d, df) which is now equivalent to the three cases above, or as > ans <- fun1(d, df, limit=10) which changes one of the defaults. It is important to note that defaults may be arbitrary expressions, even involving other arguments to the same function; they are not restricted to be constants as in our simple example here.

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