By Frans de Weert

Explaining the idea and perform of suggestions from scratch, this booklet makes a speciality of the sensible facet of innovations buying and selling, and bargains with hedging of recommendations and the way ideas investors make cash through doing so. universal phrases in alternative idea are defined and readers are proven how they relate to profit. The e-book offers the mandatory instruments to accommodate techniques in perform and it contains mathematical formulae to raise reasons from a superficial level. through the e-book real-life examples will illustrate why traders use alternative buildings to fulfill their wishes.

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**Additional resources for An introduction to options trading**

**Sample text**

These other variables are interest rates, the volatility of the underlying stock (the way the stock moves) and the dividends on the stock. By some simple examples it can be clarified that the option price should also depend on the last mentioned variables: . Interest rate. Suppose that the interest rate given on a savings account is 5% per year. Consider a put option with a time to maturity of 1 year, and, given an interest rate of 5%, the price of this option is $10. Since the holder of the short position in this option gets this $10, he can put this money in a savings account, getting a 5% interest rate.

However, it is possible to estimate the interest rate so accurately that this variable can effectively be treated as known. With this knowledge it is easy to explain the concept of implied volatility. The price of an option comes about from supply and demand. This is of course confusing. The Black–Scholes formula gives the price of an option, which would suggest there could only be one price for an option, regardless of supply and demand. But, as has been pointed out, at the time an investor has to decide whether or not to buy an option, he does not know what the volatility of the option will be during the term of this option.

By doing so he will have $10:5 (10 Ã 1:05) at the expiration date of the option. Since the price of the option is fair, the expected payoff for the holder of the long position in the option will also be $10:5. Now suppose that the interest rate was not 5% but 6%. Higher interest rates cause expected growth rates on stocks to increase, otherwise inves- THE BLACK–SCHOLES FORMULA 23 tors in stocks could be tempted to sell their stocks and put the money in a savings account. This means that the expected payoff of a put option is likely to be less.