By Masayasu Hiraoka, International Congress on Electrocardiol
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Extra resources for Advances in Electrocardiology 2004: Proceedings of the 31th International Congress on Electrocardiology (Advances in Electrocardiography)
HaYssaguerre and colleagues [ 11 studied the mechanism of paroxysmal AF in patients and found that AF is initiated by premature focal activity originating mainly in the pulmonary veins (PVs) and that radiofrequency ablation of these foci can successhlly eliminate AF. In addition, in patients with drug-refractory chronic AF and structural heart diseases, following cardioversion, the PVs are 26 27 also the dominant trigger reinitiating AF . These findings suggest that the PVs are important not only in the initiation of AF but also in its maintenance.
Tamaki, T. Yamazaki and S. Nishimura Measurement of Intracardiac Bioimpedance in Rate Adaptive Pacemakers 737 738 A . Kuusik, R. Land, M. Min, T. Pane and G. Poola Ventricular Pacing Thresholds Following High-Energy Ventricular Defibrillation Shocks Y. Yamanouchi, S. Kodama, T. Ohta, N. Morito, E. Yahiro, K. Miyoshi and H. Urata Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation by Biatrial Pacing: The Outcome and the Electrophysiological Mechanism of Prevention Y. Enjoji, T. Noro, T. Nakae, N. Tezuka, K. Kumagai, T.
31 2 Hz Control Ryanodine (2pM) Figure 3. Pacing-induced spontaneous activity in PV myocardial sleeve treated with ryanodine. 3 Hz before (Control) and after application of ryanodine (2 pM). Left, action potentials under 2 Hz stimulation; right, slow time-base recordings of membrane potential. 5-2 pM). 0 s (n=32). In the normal right and left atrial muscle, such spontaneous activity was never induced by rapid pacing in the presence of ryanodine. 3. 5-2 pM) is known to lock the SR Ca2' release channels in a sub-conductance state and to make them leaky, we speculated that ryanodine-induced changes in intracellular Ca2' and Ca2'dependent sarcolemmal ionic currents are responsible for the development of the diastolic depolarization and spontaneous activity.