By Sir David Bates (ed.), Benjamin Bederson (ed.)

This sequence, validated in 1965, is worried with contemporary advancements within the basic zone of atomic, molecular and optical physics. the sector is in a nation of swift development, as new experimental and theoretical options are placed to undergo on many elderly and new difficulties. Such difficulties diversity from reviews of the elemental houses of radiation and topic, via reviews of hitherto inaccessible states of "ordinary" and unique atoms and molecules, the keep an eye on of atoms and molecules by way of gentle, the behaviour of atoms and molecules in severe radiation fields, the distinctive constitution of such platforms, together with advanced molecules and molecular clusters, and a variety of interplay phenomena between atoms, molecules, their constituent elements and fields. issues lined contain similar utilized components, akin to atmospheric technology, astrophysics, floor physics and laser physics.

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Owing to this, they are difficult to measure and one has to introduce a certain normalization. The second difficulty is that the measured quantities enter Eq. (6) in high (Kth) power. This requires them to be measured with high accuracy, though the accuracy with which one can find the cross section is not very high. The third problem arises in those cases where the + 42 Ammosov, Delone, and Ivanov f71 WlI I 2 Energy ( e V ) 3 4 (b) FIG. 4. (a) Energy spectrum of electrons produced in the three-photon ( K = 3) process of strontium atom ionization (Agostini and Petite, 1985).

In the framework of the nonstationary perturbation theory, the cross section of direct multiphoton ionization is described by a compound matrix element of the Kth order that has the form CROSS SECTIONS OF DIRECT MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION OF ATOMS 37 where V, are dipole matrix elements that describe transitions between the ith and the jth bound states (the last transition is between the bound state and a free state E ) , while the expression in each bracket in the denominator is the detuning of the corresponding intermediate resonance.

And Smirnov, V. V. (1986). Opr. Spectrosk. 61, 655 [Opr. Spectrosc. (USSR) 61, 4121. Lin and Anderson 32 Phelps, J. 0.. Phillips, M. , Anderson, L. , and Lin, C. C. (1983). J . Phys. B 16,3825. Phillips, M. , Anderson, L. , and Lin, C. C. (1981a). Phys. Rev. A 23,2751. Phillips, M. , Anderson, L. , Lin, C. , and Miers, R. E. (1981b). Phvs. Left. 82A,404. Phillips, M. , Anderson, L. , and Lin, C. C. (1985). Phys. Rev. A 32, 21 17. Pichanick, F. M. , and Simpson, J. A. (1968). Phvs. Rev. 168, 64.

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