By John J. McCarthy

This booklet describes Optimality idea from the pinnacle down, explaining and exploring the crucial premises of OT and the consequences that persist with from them. Examples are drawn from phonology, morphology, and syntax, however the emphasis all through is at the thought instead of the examples, on figuring out what's particular approximately OT and on equipping readers to use it, expand it, and critique it of their personal components of curiosity. The book's insurance extends to paintings on first- and second-language acquisition, phonetics and sensible phonology, computational linguistics, historic linguistics, and sociolinguistics. Chapters finish with broad feedback for additional studying, categorised by way of subject, and are supplemented through an incredible bibliography (over 800 items).

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Examples: (22) eat the soup (23) John plays chess as well as Sidney Consider these These result from the application of deletion transformations to P- markers identical to those underlying 12 (24) you will eat the soup (25) John plays chess as well as Sidney plays chess Examples (22) and (2 3) are understood as paraand (25), respectively, under one interpretation not, for example, as paraphrases respectively of respectively. phrases of of (24) — (24) (26) he (she) will eat the soup (27) John plays chess as well as Sidney solves problems (makes shoes) Given these facts, there is then still another reason why PI must not in general operate on derived P-markers.

The question still remaining concerns which P-markers the PI operate on in such cases. In previous discussions, it was assumed that in these cases PI operate on the final derived P-markers. This assumption provided a straightforward formalization of the principle that P2 play no role in the semantic interpretation of such sentences. We shall see, however, that there are grounds for changing this stipulation of the range of PI in kernel sentences and that the new statement of the range of PI provides an equally formal representation of the fact that kernel sentences are interpreted fully , without P2.

This device made the use of PI unnecessary in all such cases of optional singulary transformations. 13 On the other hand, in the case of optional singulary transformations that do change meaning (assuming there are such) and in the case of generalized transformations, an alternative to using PI to produce semantically interpreted P-markers was allowed for. Type 2 projection rules (henceforth P2) were originally intended to explicate the manner in which such transformations alter or build up meanings.

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